Manure

From Antivist

The best manure is stable manure because as it decays it supplies all its mineral elements, but also nitrogen and humus. It is in partially digested form and is full of micro-organisms which help to unlock other plant food held in the mineral compounds of the soil. This manure many be fresh, or dried and pulverized from the store.

Soils fertilized by the fresh product will grow better crops than those enriched by chemical fertilizers. The best rsults will be had by plowing under the manure in the autumn. It will then decay by spring. In heavy soil, you will not notice the different the first year because the leaching effect of rain does not work as well in heavy soil. In sandy soil, the plant food in manure becomes available as fast as the plants can take it up.

Always, fresh and rotted manure should be applied to the surface before digging or plowing, dried, pulverized manures. Afterwards, and then thoroughly raked or harrowed in the surface inch or so of soil.

Rotten manure is better than fresh because of the acid. Unless soil conditions are favorable to decay - warm, moist and aerated - action will be slow. The physical condition of the soil, must, therefore, be made favorable by such processes as plowing, harrowing and, where feasible and necessary, by irrigation. Organic matter such as manure and green manure plowed under when mature (as in straw and corn stalks) or when the soil is dry will decay much less quickly than if it is succulent and when the soil is warm and moist.

Always use whatever manure is available on the farm. (Low cost - high yields)

Primary Nutrients (pounds per ton)
Type of Manure Water Content Nitrogen Phosphate Potash
Goat 65%-75% 10/21/07 7 13-19
Chicken:
Wet, sticky, and caked 75.00% 30 20 10
Moist, crumbly to sticky 50.00% 40 40 20
Crumbly 30.00% 60 55 30
Dry 15.00% 90 70 40
Ashed none 135 100

Green Manure

Green manures are crops grown solely for the improvement of the soil. When sown toward the close of the season, either alone or among other crops as these are approaching maturity they are often called cover crops because they are intended to cover the ground during winter and thus prevent loss of plant food through washing over the surface ('sheet erosion') or by seepage to lower levels and drainage. In the latter case they are always plowed under in early spring before they have made much growth. Otherwise they might become woody they might decay slowly and thus, for a time be a detriment to the soil.

Plants used for green manures are of two classes; nitrogen gatherers, those that work over atmospheric nitrogen from the air in the soil, and nitrogen consumers. Those that cannot perform this function. But use what nitrogenous compounds are already in the soil. The former are generally the most important because they increase the supply of this important element of plant growth. The most expensive to buy and the one most easily lost from the soil.

Nitrogen Gathering Crops Nitrogen Consuming Crops
Clovers Buckwheat
Vetches Rye
Peas Cowhorn
Cowpeas Common turnips
Soy beans dwarf essex rape

Often these crops are sown together to perform both functions at the same time. One favorite combination is rye and winter vetch. Another is buckwheat and crimson clover. Sometimes all four are sowed together in July, after an early vegetable crop has been harvested. Buckwheat plants are killed by the first frost, and winter will kill crimson clover. The vegetable matter these crops develop will be just as good as if alive when turned under. Rye and vetch will probably live through the winter, must be dug or plowed under before they get 8" high or the job will be difficult and the effecs may not be as good as if the plants were more succulent.

When fresh or rotted manure is available, it is highly advantageous to apply liberally just before a cover crop or a green manure crop is turned under because the bacteria these contain will help break down the buried plants and thus make their plant food material more quickly available to the succeeding crops.

For best results, the soil temperature should be at least 65 degrees and have moist conditions following plowing under for best decomposition.

Choice of the green manure or cover crop will depend on whether or not an increased supply of nitrates is desired in the soil. For summer sue cowpeas, soy beans, velvet beans, and summer vetch. For fall and winter, use crimson clover, hairy or winter vetch, and Canada field peas.

Sweet clover has notable value as a green manure, especially on heavy soils because of its deep rooting habit and the abundance of its foliage. However if the soil is acid it may fail unless lime or superphosphate is applied shortly before seeding. Also it may fail if 'unscarified' (machine scratched) seed is sown late - after the ground has become dry in spring. Such seed gives best results when sown in late fall or on the snow during winter. In these cases, the plants et an earlier start than the weeds which they choke out. Scarified seed cannot be safely used in this way because it germinates too early.

Animal Manure

Put a fresh coat of cow manure on the garden every year. If chicken manure, use very lightly. Horse manure is okay. Sheep manure stinks really bad. Farm land should have 25 tons of manure per acre per year. If frequent green manure or cover crops have been the regular practice, the land should be in good condition.

The first business of the farmer is to grow crops such that the land becomes better rather than poorer. The best manure is stable manure because as it decays it supplies all its mineral elements, but also nitrogen and humus. It is in partially digested form and is full of micro-organisms which help to unlock other plant food held in the mineral compounds of the soil. This manure many be fresh, or dried and pulverized from the store.

Soils fertilized by the fresh product will grow better crops than those enriched by chemical fertilizers. Unless the latter is supplemented by humus in some way. the best rsults will be had by plowing under the manure in the autumn. It will then decay by spring. In heavy soil, you will not notice the different the first year because the leaching effect of rain does not work as well in heavy soil. In sandy soil, the plant food in manure becomes available as fast as the plants can take it up. For vegetable crops, a two-horse load of manure spreads ut on 2,500 square feet (50' x 50') is a liberal amount. though half this quantity will ive fair results and twice as much will be best for crops grown for their foliage or stems - celery, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, etc.

Always, fres and rotted manure should be applied to the surface before digging or plowing, dried, pulverized manures. Afterwards, and then thoroughly raked or harrowed in the surface inch or so of soil. Liberal dressings of dried manures are: sheep 100 lbs to 1000 sq. ft. Poultry and pigeon, 75 pounds; horse 100 to 150 - cow - 150 - 200.

The crude materials upon which the bacteria more consist of dead organic matter such as plant roots, leaves, stems, animal wastes, and the bodies of dead animals. These must break down into nitrates before the plants can use them. If insufficient raw materials is lacking, you must add nitrate commercially.

Rotten manure is better than fresh because of the acid. Unless soil conditions are favorable to decay - warm, moist and aerated - action will be slow. The physical condition of the soil, must, therefore, be made favorable by such processes as plowing, harrowing and, where feasible and necessary, but irrigation, organic matter such as manure and green manure plowed under when nature (as in straw and corn stalks) or when the soil is dry will decay much less quickly than if it is succulent and when the soil is warm and moist.

10 to 20 tons of stable manure to the acre annually is necessary to produce good vegetables, otherwise you must add commercial fertilizer. More fertilizer increased productivity, especially in heavy soils.

4 tons of manure = 500 pounds of fertilizer.

8 tons of manure = 1000 pounds of fertilizer.

12 tons of manure = 1500 pounds of fertilizer.

On light soils, turn under weed growth. Always use whatever manure is available on the farm. (Low cost - high yields)

To reduce the risk of disease

  • Apply fresh manure at least 60 days before harvesting of any garden vegetables which will be eaten without cooking. If you apply manure within 60 days of harvest, use only aged or composted manure.
  • Never apply fresh manure after the garden is planted.
  • Thoroughly wash raw vegetables before eating.
  • Do not use cat, dog or pig manure in gardens or compost piles, because some of the parasites which can be found in these manures may survive and remain infectious for people.
  • People who are especially susceptible to foodborne illnesses should avoid eating uncooked vegetables from manured gardens. Those who face special risks from foodborne illness include pregnant women, very young children, and persons with chronic diseases, such as cancer, kidney failure, liver disease, diabetes or AIDS.
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